What’s in a Name

Is artificial intelligence the new all naturalThat’s what Tech Crunch’s Devin Coldewey thinks.

In the United States, there are no formalized requirements that a food product must meet to be deemed all natural. It means many things to many different people, especially those people marketing foods. Throwing an extra, positive sounding descriptor on a product is a great tactic for boosting its commercial appeal. Artificial intelligence is much the same; in the absence of authority, ideas about its meaning abound. Coldewey argues that many, if not most, claims of artificial intelligence are mere puffery.

What is Intelligence

We can debate whether a computer has artificial intelligence, but this raises the larger question of the meaning of intelligence. This article is hardly the place to review the theories behind intelligence, you’d be reading forever. I like defining intelligence as the ability to solve complex problems with creativity by gathering information, developing knowledge, and executing ideas. Researchers posit a number of areas of intelligence; without going into all of the proposed intelligence types, examples include linguistic, artistic, and numeric, among many more. This raises the interesting question of whether one can be intelligent if he or she excels in some categories but lags in others. Psychologist Charles Spearman’s research in the early 1900s identified g-factor as an underlying general intelligence, a high level concept driving performance on discrete measures. G-factor manifests as the correlation in performance on the discrete intelligence measures; intelligence in one area suggests intelligence in other areas. As an aside, Spearman, having used tens of intelligence metrics, developed factor analysis, whereby several variables are examined to determine whether they move together, thus possibly under control of some other (perhaps unmeasured) driver.

We run into a problem when considering artificial intelligence in the context of different forms of intelligence. Computers are clearly capable on a mathematics ability axis when one considers how numeric intelligence is measured (i.e.: solving math problems), however they fall short with art (screenplays written by computers are more comedy than drama!). Perhaps we need a method of arriving at a computer’s g-factor, if artificial intelligence can even be described with a g-factor.

Defining Artificial Intelligence

Given the complexity of defining intelligence, what can we say of artificial intelligence? I propose that rather than defining artificial intelligence as binary–as a system either having artificial intelligence or not–a system must be considered as having intelligence on continua on multiple axes.

Under such a paradigm, a computer employed to solve Ito calculus problems such as predicted rocket flight trajectories, might score very highly on numeric ability but poorly on self awareness. Self aware robots, likewise, may perform well on inter- and intrapersonal intelligence, but poorly on mathematical intelligence. To measure these systems’ intelligence requires a global review of their skills, maybe this is accomplished by scoring each metric (of how many to be determined) and taking an average. Maybe achieving this requires accepting that there are too many facets of artificial intelligence to reduce it to a single value.

This is more than an academic exercise. Where artificial intelligence is of great interest to consumers, researchers, product designers, healthcare, industry, government and military, and more, we must have a uniform definition, scoring system, and vocabulary to communicate it.

© Peter Roehrich, 2017

AI Makes Google Plus Photos Sharper

Google Plus Photos is an excellent service for storing, editing, and sharing pics taken with your phone. Unlimited free storage for compressed files, adequate for most smartphone cameras, along with instant upload, and in app editing and sharing make using it a no-brainer. If you use a dSLR or otherwise wish to store super sized files, you can dip into your free storage or purchase more. (I’ve never noticed quality problems with my photos, and I allow my files to be compressed so as to qualify for free, unlimited storage.)

Google’s announcement that it will use AI to enhance compressed photos by 75% is interesting. Its easy to go from a crisp photo to a grainy, pixelated image, but its hard to go the other way. But that’s exactly what Google is doing. Unfortunately it’s not available to Google Photos users writ large yet, however is offered for select Google Plus users.

Less Bandwidth

Photos take are, at least compared to text, large files requiring more data and time to download. Where a user has a poor connection or limited data plan, compressing photos makes a lot of sense as smaller images equate to smaller file size. But such an approach sacrifices quality for speed and size.


Downsampling is the process through which a large image is compressed. It works by taking several very small pieces of the image and combining them. Imagine a checkerboard where, in full resolution, each cell is rendered either black or white. In downsampling several squares will be combined to yield fewer, larger blocks of some intermediate shade. Through this process, the file shrinks in size as it is called upon to store fewer pieces of information. The cost is blurred lines and muted colors.

Crime dramas on TV may make ‘enhancing’ grainy images look easy, but it’s not. Doing so requires figuring out what the underlying, downsampled pixels were.


In a crime drama, an investigator may ‘enhance’ a pixelated license plate image, for example, with ease to yield crisp numbers. This makes for a great show, but in reality, it’s more likely that the human eye interprets the license plate number from a larger picture. As downsampling is taking fewer ‘samples’ of an image so as to represent it in fewer pixels, upsampling (interpolation) is the process of going from a low quality image to a higher quality rendering.

Example of image compressed and processed by RAISR.
Example photo compressed and then enhanced through RAISR. Compression reduces the amount of data necessary to transmit the photo by 75%. Photo by Google.

Humans can (somewhat) follow the lines of the image, block by block, to fill in the missing curves and sharpen colors in the mind. Asking a computer to do so is a taller order.


Computers lack the human intuition to say that a fuzzy figure is a ‘3’ or an ‘8’ in a grainy picture. But what if computers could be trained to recognize the patterns that result from downsampling various shapes? Then could they backfill the missing detail to sharpen up those compressed pictures? Enter machine learning.

Diagram and images explaining RAISR.
Google’s RAISR (Rapid and Accurate Image Super-Resolution) process. The steps of the process are shown on the top and a RAISR processed image below. Photo by Google.

Google is training its brain to recognize just such patterns so that it can fill in detail missing from compressed images. Its process is RAISR or Rapid and Accurate Image Super-Resolution. Pairs of images, a high resolution and low resolution, are used to train Google’s computers. The computers search for a function that will, pixel by pixel, convert the low resolution image back to (or close to) the original high resolution image. After training, when their computers see a low resolution photo, they hash it. In hashing, each piece of information is combined through a mathematical operation to come up with a unique value, the hash value, that can be compared against the hash values of other, known images which were computed similarly. From this comparison, Google’s computers ascertain which function is required to convert the particular image (or perhaps piece of image) back to high resolution.

We can imagine a schema where low resolution image is downloaded to a user device and hashed locally on the phone, etc. The device could then send the hash value back to the Google mother ship, retrieve the required formulas, and implement them locally, generating a very high quality picture. Google says the process will be something along these lines, cutting file size by 75%.

The Next Step

What could Google have in mind with this technology? Clearly they are deploying it to allow full resolution Google Photo image download with lower data burden. But is there anything else? Perhaps they see it used more universally with Chrome, whereby any picture on the web is compressed, downloaded, and then upsampled, making webpages load faster. Or perhaps they will pair it with their unlimited photo storage option, allowing users to store a ‘pseudo’ high resolution photo that exists in the ether as a compressed file, but appears on the screen as full size.

Time will tell.

© Peter Roehrich, 2017